Dumbarton Oaks Studies 4



The idea of apostolicity in Byzantium and the legend of the Apostle Andrew


by Francis Dvornik

Professor of Byzantine History, Dumbarton Oaks, and Member of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University




Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1958


Scans in .pdf format (14.4 Mb)



I. The Guiding Principle in the Evolution of Church Organization 

The practice of the Apostles — The Council of Nicaea sanctions the adaptation of the ecclesiastical organization to the administrative division of the Empire — The bishop of Alexandria as supra-metropolitan? — Position of Antioch — The rights of the bishops of Antioch compared with those of Rome and Alexandria — Ephesus, Caesarea, Heraclea as supra-metropolitan cities? — The canons of the Council of Constantinople (381) compared with the Nicene decrees — The see of Jerusalem — Jerome's testimony — Adaptation to the divisions of the Empire in the West: Rome, Italy, Illyricum — Africa and Spain — Gaul and Arles


II. The Idea of Apostolicity in the West and in the East before the Council of Chalcedon

Rome the only apostolic see in the West — Apostolic sees in the East — Canon three of the Council of Constantinople (381) viewed in a new light — Reaction in the West — The views of the Council of 382 on apostolicity — St. Basil and the idea of apostolicity — John Chrysostom — Struggle between Alexandria and Constantinople — The principle of apostolicity at the Council of Ephesus — St. Cyril, Dioscorus of Alexandria, and Domnus of Antioch — Leo I's success in stressing the apostolicity of his see in the East — The idea of apostolicity at Chalcedon — Leo I and the so-called twenty-eighth canon — Attitude of the legates — Omission of apostolicity in the canon — Reasons for Leo's negative attitude — Leo's apparent success a disguised compromise


III. Growth of the Idea of Apostolicity during the Acacian Schism

Acacius and Pope Simplicius — Gelasius' claims derived from Petrine tradition — Eastern and western reaction to Gelasius' claims — Increasing concern with apostolicity in the East — Libellus Hormisdae — Apostolic character of the Roman see in imperial and patriarchal letters — Currency of the idea of apostolicity in the East and its possible consequences for Constantinople


IV. The Birth of the Andrew Tradition Concerning Byzantium

The transfer of Andrew's relics and its meaning — No trace of the Andrew tradition in Chrysostom's writings — St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Theodoret and Basil of Seleucia on Andrew — Western writers on Andrew — The Andrew Legend unknown in the sixth century — The see of Constantinople called “apostolic" from the seventh century onward — This usage not originated by Andrew Legend — The defenders of image-worship promote the idea of apostolicity in Constantinople — The Narratio key to the dating of writings containing the Andrew and Stachys Legend? — First codification of the Andrew Legend in Pseudo-Epiphanius' List of Disciples — Origin of List of Apostles and Disciples; dating of Pseudo-Epiphanius' List — Pseudo-Dorotheas' List later than Pseudo-Epiphanius' List and the Narratio


V. The Legendary Elements in the Andrew Tradition

The lost apocryphal Acts of Andrew as the ultimate source of the Constantinopolitan tradition — Gregory of Tours on Andrew's stay in Byzantium — The apocryphal Acts of Andrew known in the East and West from the fifth to the ninth centuries — Date of the composition of the apocryphal Acts of Andrew — Scythia, not Achaea, as Andrew's missionary field — Did Andrew preach in Asia Minor? — The legend of the maneaters as a reflection of the old tradition of Andrew's preaching in Scythia — Later tradition identifying the city of the maneaters with Sinope — The “Scythian tradition" reflected in the original Acts and in the Legends of Andrew's preaching in Colchis and in Georgia — Legendary traits in the “Achaean tradition" — Oldest traditions quote Luke as missionary of Achaea — Spread of the new “Achaean tradition" — Legendary accounts of Argyropolis and Zeuxippus — Probable origin of the “Achaean tradition" — Conclusion


VI. The Growth of the Andrew Legend

Ninth-century writings propagating the Andrew and Stachys Legend — The Laudatio, the Passio Artemii, and their connection with the Andrew Legend — The Laudatio echoes some ideas of the Patriarch Photius — Nicetas the Paphlagonian and Ignatius the Deacon on Andrew and Stachys — Theophanes' critical attitude toward the Andrew Legend — Another source of Byzantium's apostolic character: Constantinople heir of Ephesus and of the Apostle John. Ignatius' and Photius' testimony — John's connection with Constantinople in Armenian and Nestorian tradition — The Patriarch Photius and the Andrew Legend — The Andrew tradition, one of the principal arguments in the opuscule against Roman primacy, falsely attributed to Photius — The ninth-century Typicon of Constantinople on Andrew, Stachys, and Metrophanes — Spread of the Andrew and Stachys Legend in the tenth century — Its acceptance by the Syrians and Georgians — The Andrew story in the Russian Primary Chronicle — Pseudo-Symeon's and Cedrenus' catalogue of Byzantine bishops


VII. The Idea of Apostolicity and the Andrew Legend in the Controversies between Constantinople and Rome

The idea of apostolicity as the basis of the pentarchic order — The pentarchic idea at the Ignatian Council of 869-870 — The definition of the duties of emperors and patriarchs in the Epanagoge reflects a new spirit created by the growth of apostolicity — Possibilities of a rapprochement on this new basis — The argument of apostolicity in the controversies of the tenth and eleventh centuries — The position of the see of Constantinople in Church organization and the Western canonists of the eleventh century — Eastern writers of the eleventh and twelfth centuries — The Andrew Legend and the controversies during the thirteenth century — How the character of universal teachers attributed to the apostles by Greek polemists diminished the value of the Andrew tradition for the Greeks — The Andrew Legend in the fourteenth century in Byzantium — The Councils of Lyons and Florence on the see of Constantinople — Acceptance of the Andrew Legend by the Latin West


List of Abbreviations. List of Manuscripts Quoted

Bibliography  —   Index


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