On September 3rd ,1933, the 12th regular Congress of MPO takes place.At his own request, guest of the Congress is Prof. Arthur Andrews. He is given the word for presenting his greetings. In a long presentation Prof. Andrews describes his 1925 journey to Pirin Macedonia.He depicts the impressive law and order existing in this region and gives extremely high evaluation to the moral values of the Macedonian Bulgarians." When we arrived in a mountainous village in the region of Petritch, as well as in Djumaya, they told me to go and look after my business, while the luggage can stay in the car and that I should not worry about it, because nobody is going to take it. To my question "how is this possible, when even in America this is not possible?, I was answered, that the order set in this region, guarantees the life and property of everyone. I had the chance to verify it for my self."ends Prof. Andrews./27/ His theses is to prove, the complete difference between the situations existing in the Pirin and the other two parts of Macedonia.
The 13th Congress of MPO is held in the beginning of September 1934 in Fort Wayne. Official greeting to the Congress are presented by the Mayor of the second of importance town in Indiana, David Hossy. He also gives very high evaluation of the civil virtues of the Macedonian Bulgarians living in the colony in Fort Wayne. He concludes:" You are good and freedom-loving people and I am happy to congratulate you from my name and from the name of the town. Your fight is great and your meeting/ congress/ here, expresses your desire to see your people, in a far away country enjoy the same liberty and rights, we enjoy in America. We, Americans respect those people who fight for liberty and that is why in the different towns of our immense country, you will see monuments of national heroes of different countries."/28/ Telegrams of congratulation of similar meaning, are sent by the Member of Congress of Indiana- James Farley, by Prof. F. Kruger and other eminent Americans.
The assassination of the King of Yugoslavia, Alexander Karageorgievitch, in October 1934 in Marseilles, once again brings to the front pages of the American editions the Macedonian question. On November 2nd, the American Academy for Political and Social Sciences organizes, in Philadelphia , a special scientific conference on the Balkans. Chairperson to its sessions is
D. Morgentaw -- former plenipotentiary minister in Turkey in the period of the First World War. His son is finance minister in Roosevelt's administration. Official speakers of the conference are Prof. John Backels, Arnold Wallfears and Edgar Fisher. Prof. Bayckels' speech is wholly dedicated to the Macedonian question.In it, the eminent American expert on the Balkans sates the following:"The assassination of King Alexander appears as a terribly bloody crime........ But no matter how horrible is the assassination, it is not more horrible than the things being done by King Alexander's gendarmes for the last ten years in Macedonia. "Afterwards Prof. Bayckels proves, that the Macedonian Slavs "are closely related with the Bulgarians", that they speak a language " understandable by every Bulgarian". The Serbian authorities in Scopije have submitted to destruction "the Bulgarian civilization" in the region around the Vardar river, for the aim even closing the Bulgarian- Yugoslavian border with metal nets. This barbed wire, obviously has been put up to separate the Macedonians of Serbian Macedonia from the Macedonians in Bulgaria, so as to destroy all national connections and to force the young generation to forget the old routes, the old Bulgarian language and the old religion and to be serbicised. Maybe this can make you realize, what is the situation in this country. May be this makes you understand, why things as the assassination of King Alexander happen!? I do not approve of the murder, as I said in the beginning............ But I think there is what to say, so that an end is put to such a situation as the one in the Balkans."/29/
The assassination in Marseilles is reason for many American journalists, for a prolonged period of time, to write extensive articles on the Balkan's national problems. Especially impressive is the series by the eminent publicist of the 30-ies, Johannes Style, published in the well-known "New York Post". This expert on the Macedonian problem, also describes in detail, the Serbia's' installation of a metal wire net around the newly created state, to break all contacts between the Bulgarians in Vardar Macedonia and their brothers in Bulgaria.Belgrades'aim is one -- to denationalize the Bulgarian population around the Vardar River. J. Style even states that the Serbian authorities are:"proud" of some of the successes in this field, because in Vardar Macedonia "already there are no Bulgarian schools, the teachers and priests have been chased away, the church ceremonies are serbicised"/30/
During 1935, the American press several times pays attention to the fate of the Bulgarian political prisoners in Vardar Macedonia. In August, the International Committee for Political Prisoners in New York sends a letter to the Yugoslavian plenipotentiary minister in Washington, specifically on the deteriorated condition of Diameter Chkatrov, sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. The document signed by Roger Baldwin, Arthur Garfield and John Holmes is published by the newspapers. It states: "The announced facts are , that in Scopije, Macedonia about 20 Macedonian students were tried in 1927, because of their refusal to change their Bulgarian language with Serbian. Among these students was Dimitar Chkatrov. The young man, sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, tried to escape Nish's prison because of the tortures. He was captured and brought back, refusing again to sign a declaration for Serbian nationality. In February 1935, he was transferred to the prison in Sremska Mirtovitsa. During his transferal, he was kept in the Belgrade prison, submitted to brutal tortures, having shaken his health."/31/ Requesting the official opinion of the Serbian State on the case, the members of the American humanitarian organization insist Belgrade to put an end to the repressions over the Bulgarian population in Vardar Macedonia.
As guest of the 19th Congress of MPO, held on September 1-3 1940,in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is invited Prof. G. Routcheck. After meeting the delegates and the guests of the Congress he is
"astonished by the force of the movement, its unity, the self-sacrifice of its members and the consistency in the achievement of the aims set," as he himself states afterwards to the press. "Prof. Roucheck became our friend and as such he spoke at our congress", states CC of MPO. His joining of the Macedono-Bulgarian lobby in USA is considered a new big achievement "for the defence of the Bulgarian spirit in front of the American public opinion"./33/
The 21st Congress of MPO takes place in September 1942 in St. Louis. Its guests are the Mayor of the city Joseph Holland and the Professors Harry O'Neil and Cyrill Black Jr. In the statement, after the Congress, it is said:" Prof. Black, having lived for eight years in Bulgaria, had the possibility to know well not only the Bulgarian language, but also the culture and political development of the Bulgarian people. First, he spoke in English. He described a trip he made from Sofia to Dupnitsa, Gorna Djumaya, Petritch., Koulata. Salonia and other parts of Macedonia. After finishing his speech, the public applauded him loudly demanding Prof. Black to say something in Bulgarian. The professor, in fact, speaks perfect literary Bulgarian. He greeted everybody and wished successful activity of the congress."/34/ Concerning Prof. O'Neil's statement, the information on the work of the congress says.: "He had a very meaningful speech on the struggles in Macedonia, as well as,on the justful causes of the fight in Macedonia since before the Ilinden uprising, ending his speech with the postulates of the Atlantic Charter, where Macedonia may have hope to gain its liberty and rights. Prof. O'Neil's speech was listened to very attentively and greeted with loud applause."/35/. In fact, Prof. Harry O' Neil is the first representative of the Macedono-Bulgarian lobby in the USA , who during the World War II, proposes the idea, Macedonia's question to be solved on the basis of the principles of the Atlantic Charter, formulated by Roosevelt and Churchill several months before. Thus, the Bulgarians in Macedonia may receive a really democratic social system and unlimited political freedom.
In view of the forthcoming end for Bulgaria as participant in the Second World War, in the summer of 1944, the American newspapers begin regular information on Bulgarian topics. On September 6th, the international observer Berg Holt describes in " Christian Science Monitor", the public and cultural improvements , done by the Bulgarian authorities, during the second Bulgarian administration of the region in the period 1941-1944. "The Bulgarians almost finished the railroad Sofia - Scopije. The last informations are that only two tunnels are left to be constructed, so that the line is opened and starts functioning...In Scopije another university, bearing the name of King Boris is opened. Besides many schools, 17 high-schools, big number of peoples' universities and many public libraries have been opened."/36/ These facts give him reason, even at that time, to conclude that Bulgaria has never behaved as" occupator" in Vardar Macedonia in the years of the war. On the contrary, the period of the second Bulgarian administration in the beginning of the 40-ies, is evaluated by the American analyst, as the most dynamic period in the cultural and economical development of the region, since its partition in 1913 -- irrespective of the wartime situation.
As guest of the 22-nd Congress of MPO, held in September 1943, in Cincinnati, Ohio, is invited Prof. Peter Vardgess. Like Prof. O'Neil in 1942, he also advises the Macedono-Bulgarian emigration in USA to look for definitive solution for the "Macedonian Question", not in the policy of YKP and Tito's plans, known already to the American public, but in the principles of the Atlantic Charter proposed by Roosevelt and Churchill.:" Our victory against hitlerism, fascism and nazism will bring liberty to all enslaved people. Today your organization /MPO/ and your principles are really timely", says Prof. Vardgess. "You help keep up high the flame of liberty and justice in unique possibility for all to live everywhere irrespective of race, color and religious beliefs."/36/
The dramatic changes in the Balkans in the autumn of 1944, are the reason for the invitation of Prof. Albert Laibayer by CC of MPO as official speaker of the 23rd Congress of MPO in September. He is the biggest expert in USA on the "Macedonian Problem" in the end of the Second World War, as his whole life is closely connected with the Balkan political problematics. Since 1900 till 1906, the young Laibayer is teacher in the Robert College in Constantinople, where he becomes aquainted in detail with the history of the Bulgarians and the essence of the "Macedonian Question". In 1913, he becomes professor in History in the Illinois University in Urbana, where, until 1945 reads lectures and specialized courses on Balkan history. In 1918-1919, the American scientist is official member - expert of the Wilson's delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. During its sessions, he travels with the diplomatic mission to Constantinople and Syria, as well as visits Sofia, in order to help with the setting of just borders in this part of Europe. He visits again the Balkan states in 1925 and 1936. In this way, Prof. Laibayer, eminent specialist on near-east history, has not only studied, but has personally participated in the development of the Macedonian problems in its most dramatic periods between 1900 and 1944. Therefore, his opinion on the essence of the Macedonian question and the means for its solution is of extreme importance in the end of the Second World War.
In his extensive report, in front of the delegates of the Congress, Prof. Laibayer first describes the geographic borders of Macedonia, stressing on the fact that, Salonica is a most natural gate of the region to the world. Afterwards, the American professor, pays special attention to the problem of national identification of the population in Macedonia. He states the following: "For thirteen whole centuries before 1919, it has been predominantly Slavonic. When the Bulgarians leave the region of Volga and form their specific variant of the Slavonic language and traditions, they populate in majority the whole of Macedonia. This has to be stated clearly, as all evidences preceding the 70-ies/ of the 19th century/ show, that the main element in the population was the Bulgarian. Undeniable and unchangeable fact is, that Macedonia was Bulgarian/38/ To support his own conclusions, Prof. Laibayer quotes the opinion of his personal friend - the French colonel Leon Lamouche, also well informed on Macedonia, as he states the same thing " because travelers of different nationalities- French, German, English like Lee, Han, Amie Bouye, Kanitz, the Tcheck historian Iretchek and many others agree with this fact."/39/
In the second part of his report, Prof. Laibayer examines the difficult fate of the Macedonian Bulgarians after the partition of the region in 1913, expressing the hope that during the peaceful postwar reconstruction of Europe , the Great Powers can not bypass with indifference the gigantic struggle for liberty in this important part of the Old Continent. As far as the formula is concerned, he is follower of the idea of an inter-Balkan agreement, which does not exclude any of the Balkan states.
The impressive performance, of the best expert on the Macedonian question, is the last one of the Macedono-Bulgarian lobby, before it and the public in the United States learn, that the government of YKP lead by J. B.Tito have already undertaken separatist steps for the unilateral solution of the "Macedonian Question" in the borders of Yugoslavia, with the creation of Federative Republic of Macedonia, including only the Vardar part of the region. From that moment on, the "Macedonian Question" enters a completely new phase of development, with the "creation" by decrees of a new "Macedonian nation", "new Macedonian Language and " Macedonian culture" on anti-Bulgarian basis. This policy of YKP is in complete contradiction with ,what the Macedono-Bulgarian lobby knew and defended as the objective historical truth on the "Macedonian Question" till the end of the Second World War. However, in order to leave a trace for the following generations and especially for the future young researchers on the Macedonian problems, so that they know the truth on the specialists's opinions on Balkan history in the USA for the period until the creation of the "Macedonian nation ", Hristo Anastasov publishes in St. Louis a volume entitled " The case with autonomous Macedonia", a collection of all the opinions of eminent experts on the problem, including the American ones. In this book , the opinions of American experts on the Macedonian question can be seen until the creation by YKP of the "Macedonian nation" in Scopije.
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