Bulgaria in Antiquity. An Archaeological Introduction

Ralph Hoddinott


List of Figures



1. Apollonia, painted limestone stele, Sofia Archaeological Museum (after I. Venedikov) 38

2. Apollonia, amphora-ringed tomb (after I. Venedikov) 38

3. Odessos, Corinthian oinochoe, detail of decoration, Sofia Archaeological Museum (after T. Ivanov) 51

4. Douvanli, Golyama tumulus, Thracian sword, Plovdiv Archaeological Museum (after B. Filov) 63

5. Douvanli, Bashova tumulus, ‘theoxeny’, detail of red-figure hydria, Plovdiv Archaeological Museum (after I. Velkov) 66

6. Mezek, bronze grave goods, Sofia Archaeological Museum (after I. Velkov) 66

7. Mezek, Mal-tepe tomb, plan and section (after B. Filov) 68

8. Mezek, Kurt-kale tomb, plan and section (after B, Filov) 75

9. Philippopolis, gate and double wall, Djambaz-tepe, plan (after L. Botousharova) 82

10. Philippopolis, fortifications at north postern, Nebet-tepe, plan (after L. Botousharova) 82

11. Seuthopolis, city plan (after M. Chichikova) 92

12. Seuthopolis, palace-temple, plan (after M. Chichikova) 92

13. Seuthopolis, clay hearth-altar (after D. P. Dimitrov) 94

14. Koprinka, tumulus no. 3, plan of tomb (after M. Chichikova) 99

15. Kazanluk, plan and section of tomb (after V. Mikov) 99

16. Oescus, extramural building, plan (after A. Frova) 125

17. Novae north-west angle, first phase, plan (after K. Majewski) 129

18. Novae, north-west angle, third phase, plan (after K. Majewski) 129

19. Novae, west gate, plan (after K. Majewski) 131

20. Novae, south-west angle tower, plan (after K. Majewski) 131

21. Novae, south-east angle tower, plan (after D. P. Dimitrov) 131

22. Novae, rectangular tower (no. VI) plan, (after D. P. Dimitrov) 132

23. Novae, U-shaped tower (no. VIII), plan (after D. P. Dimitrov) 132

24. Iatrus, fortifications, plan (after T. Ivanov) 132

25. Iatrus, gate, plan (after T. Ivanov) 136

26. Iatrus, west sector, plan (after B. Dohle) 136

27. Nicopolis-ad-Istrum, reconstruction of city centre, plan (after S. Bobchev) 146

28. Prisovo, villa rustica, plan (after B. Sultov) 152

29. Abritus, city plan (after T. Ivanov) 158

30. Abritus, north gate, plan (after T. Ivanov) 159

31. Abritus, south gate, plan (after T. Ivanov) 160

32. Abritus, town house, plan (after T. Ivanov) 161

33. Voivoda, north-west sector, plan (after A. Milchev and S. Damyanov) 164

34. Madara, pars urbana of villa rustica, plan (after Ts. Dremsizova) 167

35. Serdica, city plan (based on a plan by T. Ivanov) 170

36. Serdica, reconstruction of angle tower, first phase (after S. Boyadjiev) 171







37. Serdica, ‘St George’ complex, plan (after T. Ivanov and S. Bobchev) 173

38. Gara Iskur, villa rustica, plan (after Ts. Dremsizova-Nelchinova) 177

39. Kopilovtsi, temples, plan (after G. Katsarov) 181

40. Philippopolis, second-century a.d. south wall, outer face and section (after K. Kolev) 188

41. Philippopolis, plan of fortified city (based on plans by D. Tsonchev and K. Kolev) 189

42. Philippopolis, medallion: temple of Apollo (after T. Gerasimov) 192

43. Hissar, mausoleum, plan and section (after H. Djambov) 198

44. Starazagorski Mineralni Bani, Roman baths, plan (after D. Nikolov) 203

45. Starazagorski Mineralni Bani, building inscription (after D. Nikolov) 203

46. Chatalka, pars urbana of villa rustica, plan (after D. Nikolov) 208

47. Chatalka, villa rustica, complex with pottery workshops, plan (after D. Nikolov) 2x0

48. Chatalka, outlying building with apsed baths, plan (after D. Nikolov) 211

49. Haskovo Mineralni Bani, a pool, plan (after D. Tsonchev) 214

50. Kasnakovo, nymphaeum, plan (after I. Venedikov) 216

51. Armira, pars urbana of villa rustica, plan (after Ya. Mladenova) 217

52. Anchialos, mausoleum, plan and section (after T. Petrov) 222

53. Odessos, Roman baths, plan (after M. Mirchev) 226

54. Odessos, octagonal tomb, plan and section (after M. Mirchev) 231

55. Odessos, tomb, brickwork imitation of dome (after M. Mirchev) 232

56. Odessos, tomb graffito (after M. Mirchev) 232

57. Botevo, church, plan (after S. Stanchev) 243

58. Veliko Turnovo, plan (after S. Bossilkov) 250

59. Veliko Turnovo, superimposed churches, plan (after B. Ignatov) 251

60. Veliko Turnovo, church and cruciform building, plan (after N. Angelov) 251

61. Discoduratera, site plan (after B. Sultov) 255

62. Sadovets, Golemanovo Kale, plan (after G. Bersu) 257

63. Madara, fortress and detail of gate tower, plan (after K. Škorpil) 260

64. Preslav, Deli-Doushka church, plan (after V. Ivanova) 262

65. Krumovo Kale, extramural church, plan (after D. Ovcharov) 265

66. Tsar Krum, superimposed churches, plan (after V. Antonova) 265

67. Tsar Krum, second church, plan (after V. Antonova) 267

68. Serdica, reconstruction of Early Byzantine angle tower (after S. Boyadjiev) 270

69. Serdica, superimposed churches outside east gate, plan (after M. Stancheva) 271

70. Serdica, Holy Wisdom, plan of church 1 (after S. Boyadjiev) 273

71. Serdica, Holy Wisdom, plan of church 2 (after S. Boyadjiev) 273

72. Serdica, Holy Wisdom, overall plan of superimposed churches (after S. Boyadjiev) 274

73. Serdica, Holy Wisdom, reconstruction of church 5 (after S. Boyadjiev) 274

74. Orlandovtsi, villa rustica, plan (after Ts. Dremsizova-Nelchinova) 276

75. Ivanyani, church, plan (after V. Ivanova) 278

76. Tsurkvishte (Klise-Kuoi), church, plan (after P. Mutafchiev) 278

77. Pirdop, Elenska church and fortifications, plan (after P. Mutafchiev) 281





78. Pirdop, Elenska church, plan (after P. Mutafchiev) 282

79. Pautalia, south-east sector of Hissarluk fortifications (after Z. Gocheva) 286

80. Sandanski, baptistery, plan (after V. Ivanova) 287

81. Sandanski, church, plan (after D. Djidrov) 288

82. Komatevo, church, plan (after H. Djambov) 292

83. Peroushtitsa, ‘Red Church’, plan (after A. Frolow) 295

84. Isperihovo, monastery, plan (after H. Djambov) 297

85. Golyamo Belovo, church, plan (after A. Grabar and W. Emerson) 298

86. Hissar, general plan of town and environs (after K. Madjarov) 299

87. Hissar, north-east angle tower, plan (after K. Madjarov) 301

88. Hissar, south gate, plan (after K. Madjarov) 302

89. Hissar, east gate, plan (after K. Madjarov) 302

90. Hissar, churches 3A and 3B, plan (after V. Ivanova) 306

91. Hissar, churches 4A and 4B, plan (after D. Tsonchev) 306

92. Hissar, church 8, plan (after D. Tsonchev and K. Madjarov) 307

93. Hissar, church, 7, plan (after D. Tsonchev and K. Madjarov) 308

94. Hissar, church 1, plan (after S. Boyadjiev) 309

95. Hissar, church 6, plan (after D. Tsonchev) 311

96. Hissar, church 9, plan (after K. Madjarov) 311

97. Beroe, south gate, plan (after D. Nikolov) 312

98. Beroe, sixth-century phase of town house, plan (after D. Nikolov) 314

99. Mesambria, west gate, plan (after D. Marinov) 318

100. Mesambria, ‘Sea Basilica’, plan (after I. Velkov) 320

101. Mesambria, ‘Old Metropolis’, plan (after S. Boyadjiev) 322

102. Mesambria, reconstruction of the ‘Old Metropolis’ (after S. Boyadjiev) 322

103. Odessos, Galata, church superimposed on pagan sanctuary, plan (after M. Mirchev) 325

104. Odessos, Djanavar-tepe church, plan (after D. P. Dimitrov) 327

105. Odessos, Pirinch-tepe church, plan (after K. Škorpil) 328


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