East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450–1450

General Editor Florin Curta




The Making of Christian Moravia (858–882). Papal Power and Political Reality


Maddalena Betti






Acknowledgements  ix

Foreword  xi

by Thomas F. X. Noble


Introduction  1

I. The Archdiocese of Methodius in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Historiography  9

1. The Use of the Cyrillic-Methodian Heritage in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Romantic Slavophilism, the Reawakening of the Slavs, and Roman Ecumenism  10

2. Great Moravia and the Archdiocese of Methodius in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Czechoslovakia  14

3. Revisionist Analyses of the Methodian Archdiocese  27

4. The Archdiocese of Methodius in František Dvorník: “La lutte autour de l’Illyricum”  34

5. Conclusion 39

II. The Origins of the Methodian Diocese during the Pontificates of Nicholas I (858–867) and Hadrian II (867–872). A Comparison of the Roman and Slavonic Sources  41

1. The Silence of the Roman Sources: The Possible Censure by Pope Stephen V (885–890)  43

2. Nicholas I (858–867): The First Contact 54

3. Hadrian II (867–872): The Constitution of a New Church  65

4. Introduction to the Slavonic Sources: The “Life of Constantine,” the “Life of Methodius,” and the “Encomium to Constantine and Methodius” 72

5. Nicholas I and Hadrian II in the Slavonic Sources: the “Life of Constantine,” the “Life of Methodius,” and the “Encomium to Cyril and Methodius”  83

6. Anastasius the Librarian and Constantine the Philosopher 90

7. A Roman Source: The “Vita Constantini-Cyrilli cum translatione S. Clementis”  96

8. Conclusion 104


III. The Pannonian-Moravian Diocese in the Letters of Pope John VIII (872–882): Papal Strategies and Languages  109

1. Papal Missionary Involvement: Sixth to Ninth Century  111

2. John VIII’s Diplomatic Network: Letters and Legates 121

3. Geographical Sources for the Methodian Archdiocese  138

4. Pannonian Diocese—Moravian Diocese 154

5. The Ecclesiastical Career of a Roman Missionary: Methodius, Augustine, and Boniface  168

6. Svatopluk’s Role in Shaping the “Sancta Ecclesia Marabensis”  183

7. The Sirmian Issue 192

8. Conclusion  203


Conclusion: The Question of the “Sancta Ecclesia Marabensis”

Revisited  207

Maps  217

Bibliography  223

Index  247