From: "george tsapanos" <>
Date: Tue, 6 Oct 1998 00:53:00 -0700
Lines: 127
Message-ID: <eM$kz5P89GA.210@upnetnews05>
Newsgroups: soc.culture.greek,

During the last 10 days of October 1912, the Bulgars were in Eastern Makedonia and Thrace, and the Serbs, after the battle of Kumanovo, were advancing in the Northern Makedonia and they were entering the plains of Pelagonia. They set camp by the Erigonas river in a thrilling  place for their history's  " Bakirno-Gumno".

The Greek army was  in the  Western Makedonia  and already occupied Thessaloniki, while the  5th Army under Mat8aiopoulos had stoped in Vevi by Florina. Between the Serbs and the Greeks, in the middle in Monastiri were still the Turks. The following story was taken from the book ""About the Vlachs of the Hellenic areas"" by T.M. Katsougiannis, who based his account from the memories of A. Naltsas, a  Makedonian chieftain.

"" After the falling of Skopia, on 13/26 of October 1912, the Turks were backing toward South with their 6th and 7th Army.

The Russian console from 18/31 of October was following the operations, giving diplomatic advices to prince and heir to  the Serbian throne. On the 19th  of October  (1st of November),  after a telegramm by the Greek army asking the Serbs to attact and notifying them about their advance toward Monastiri, the Russian console advice the Serbs to attact first in order to arrive in Monastieri first.

The Turk general Zakci Pasha, on the night of 19 th of October,  1st of November (old calendar), came in an understanding with the Russian console, who advice him to leave towards the West, towards Ioannina the only place where the Turks had still chances of surviving.

The idea was that in such a way he could be able to help the rest of the Ottomans of Essat Pasha, and maybe save for the Empire, Epirus and Albania. 20,000 golden Turkish coins were given to Zakci Pasha by the Russian console, according to others the money went to Tzavit Pasha commander of the 5th Army in Monastiri.

The money were drawn from the Ottoman Bank in Skopia, for the goverment of Russia, and they were given to the Russian console by the vice director of the Bank Italian, Vernazza, and were send with a military car accompanied by one officer and two soldiers.

The Russian boy wanted to make sure that monastiri will become a Slav city, and that maybe Greece still could lose the war in Ioannina, with the help of the armies from Monastiri going in there !!!

Macchiavelian designs by the Russian Slavs.

In such a way the 5th, 6th and 7th Armies rather than fight with the Serbs by whom were not pressed at all, had to fight with the Greeks in Vevi and Florina with their 18th Army.

After the battle of Perlepes on 20-24 of October (2-6 of November) 1912, the Turks retreat towards Monastiri  where part of them surrended to the Serbs and the remain moved towards Korytsa, ( 10,000 soldiers), under Tzavit Pasha and towards Ioannina (15,000 soldiers under Zecki Pasha).""

The Serbian advancement began on the 1st of November and by the 5th of November the town of Monastiri, was theirs.

The casualties were very low, and everybody was ready for the defeat, including the Turkish leaders.

The Turks had arrested earlier 400 Greeks in Monastiri, "just in case". However once things started getting  really bad for the Ottomans, the Turkish population decide to free the hostages and ask for safe haven in the houses of the Christian neighbors.

5th to 6th of November was the last night for the Turks in Monastiri, and on the 7th the Serbs were entering Monastiri.

Were entering in a town that wasn't theirs, they were entering in a town that were not welcome at all.

And they KNEW it.

Few days later Konstantine heir to the Greek throne was entering Monastiri with  prince George, Alexander, and Paul, it was a different atmosphere and everybody thought for the best for the Greek cause.

After 6-7 months full with historical events, the Greek-Serbian alliance against Bulgaria, was signed on May the 19th 1913 while on the 16th of June we have the beginning of the second Balkan war against Bulgaria and then on the 28th of July we have the Bucarest treaty.

Two of the terms of that treaty are of a particular attention for the Greeks, especially the Vlachs.

The first was the sacrifice, sell-out  of Monastiri and the areas around it. The second one the ""recognition"" of a Romanian  artificial minority within the new lands and especially the granting of special scholastic and ecclesiastical privileges ( without the knowledge of the Church).

Katsougiannis he put it clear :

""We believe that both of those sacrificies were basically the result  of Ignorance by the Hellenes regarding the Kutso-Vlachian element, it's ancestry, and it's role that it played, in the formation of the modern History of Hellenism, ignorance  for which were responsible the intellect, the science, and the diplomacy of Greece and which contributed to a lesser estimation of  reality.""

Now those are some heavy words !!!

Venizelos went to Bucarest thru Monastiri. Both ways. And coming back told to the Greek majority, that there was nothing that could be done. He also told them, that ""I hope that you'll enjoy yourselves with the Serbs, but if you wish I can place you in Florina in order to have a New Monastiri"".

And now toward the recognition of the minority status for the Romanians. It became clear, that it was the result of the Romanian propaganda, working around Monastiri during the Makedonian struggle. But as it was proven  in Bucarest, it's ultimate  target wasn't  the anexation of a piece from Makedonia to Romania.

Nooooooooo  the Romanians KNEW that they had not a chance for something like this.

Their ultimate target was the establishment of rights, rights that at a certain moment they could use as a leverage during the division of the Ottoman empire.

It was a trade off. It was a sell-out. We gave Monastiri to the Serbs, and we recognize an  UN-EXISTING  Romanian-Kutso-Vlachian minority, especially by giving them the ecclesiastical autonomy.

What did we gain ?

A  NEW Greece, without Monastiri, and with plenty of Unexisting Romanians, just to be nice to the allies.

Venizelos had his new Greece, and we, the Vlachs  had a new home to the South.

The point to be made here is also something else.

Venizelos DID NOT HAVE the authority to make such a deal.

( See Paparrhgopoulos history of the Hellenic nation  "Karolidis supplement" volume 6th part 2nd, page 153-154 and note page 153). The Romanians got him out of guard, and gave them the easy victory hoping in something more concrete, something other than just the talking by the Romanians.

It never came. And in such a way we had also the end of the Romanian propaganda and attempts by them to anexate parts of Makedonia. The question though about Romanian territorial intentions did not end till the communist era. Too late, too many killings in between, and with the Romanians out of the Makedonian scene without any farther involments. And the SKOPIANS ?

Ah........those SKOPIANS !! They were nowhere to be found around those days. Just ask the Serbs and the Bulgarians, they'll tell you all about it.

Regards to all ..................L.

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