Rutgers Byzantine Series. Peter Charanis General Editor



Byzantine missions among the Slavs. SS. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius


Francis Dvornik


Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey 1970


Scans in .pdf format (27.3 Mb)




List of Abbreviations

    Foreword by Peter Charanis  —  Preface


1. Byzantine, Roman, and Frankish missions among the Southern Slavs

    Establishment of the Slavs in Central Europe, Pannonia, and Illyricum—The Emperor Heraclius, Rome, and the Christianization of the Croats—First results—The role of the coastal cities of Zara and Split and of Aquileia—Foundation of the bishopric of Nin by Pope Nicholas I in 860—Christianization of the Serbs and of the Slavs on Byzantine territory—First traces of Christianity in Bulgaria—The Bulgars and the Franks


2. Byzantium, the Russians, the Khazars, the Arabs, and Constantine’s early career

    Appearance of Russians under Constantinople’s walls—The Khazars, the Jews, and Byzantium—Youth of Constantine and Methodius—Constantine’s stay in the capital—Methodius, civil servant and monk—Constantine at the university, and his definition of philosophy—Constantine’s disputation with the iconoclastic ex-patriarch, and the Arab mission—Constantine and the political upheaval in Byzantium—The brothers’ stay in Cherson, and the relics of St. Clement—The Khazar mission—Constantine at the patriarchal academy


3. Moravia before the Byzantine mission

    Formation of the Moravian State— Annexation of Nitra—Irish or Frankish (Bavarian) missionaries in Moravia and Slovakia?— Priests from Greece in Moravia?—Moravian churches built in the first half of the ninth century—Prototypes of those churches in the Adriatic sphere?—Political and economic organization of Moravia —Cultural background of Moravia in the light of recent archaeological discoveries—The Avar civilization, Byzantium and Moravia —Mojmír, Pribina, Rastislav—Franco-Bulgarian and Moravo-Byzantine alliance?—Cultural and religious objects of the Moravian embassy in Byzantium—Invention of the Slavic alphabet— How the Byzantine embassy reached Moravia


4. The Byzantine mission in Moravia

    Reasons for not sending a bishop to Moravia—Byzantine liturgy in Moravia—The Three Folios of Sinai and the Euchologium of Sinai—The Leaflets of Kiev—The liturgy of St. Peter—The Leaflets of Vienna and of Prague—When did the liturgy of St. Peter replace the liturgy of Chrysostom?—Character of the Slavonic translation of the Euchologium—Constantine’s method in the translation of the Gospels—Constantine’s Proglas to the Gospels—Pastoral activity of the brothers—Moravian churches with semi-circular apses built by the Byzantine mission?—Development of “missionary” churches during the conversion of the Slavs in Greece and of the Alans; their introduction into Moravia?—Conversion of the Bulgars and the Russians—The brothers in Pannonia and in Venice


5. Rome and the Moravian mission

    The brothers, returning to Constantinople, are invited to stop in Rome—Pope Hadrian II and the Slavic liturgy—Anastasius the Librarian and Constantine; Gauderich and the Legenda italica; reversal in Constantinople—Constantine becomes a monk (Cyril); his death—Was Constantine-Cyril ordained bishop or priest?—Intervention of Kocel of Pannonia. Methodius abandons plans of returning to Constantinople—Papal bull approving Slavic liturgy— Methodius ordained archbishop of Sirmium with jurisdiction over Pannonia and Moravia—Political upheaval in Moravia; Methodius condemned and imprisoned by the Frankish hierarchy— Methodius, freed by papal intervention; his stay in Pannonia—Methodius received by Svatopluk in Moravia—Agathon “of the Moravians” ordained by Ignatius to replace Methodius?


6. Methodius in Moravia

    Svatopluk and Methodius. Prelude to investiture contest in Moravia?—The Filioque, the Franks, and the Slavic clergy— Methodius vindicated by Rome—Wiching's duplicity—Svatopluk’s expansion in Pannonia, Bohemia, White Serbia, and Poland. His ambitions in Francia—Historicity of Methodius’ journey to Constantinople—Basil and Methodius, Boris and the Byzantine embassy to Svatopluk—Methodius’ translation of the Old Testament-Methodius’ Nomocanon and John VIII’s Latin collection of Canon Law; First Slavic Code of Laws—Paterikon and homilies, translations of Constantine’s compositions—Encounter with the “Hungarian King”—Excommunication of Wiching?—Gorazd recommended as successor—Methodius’ death and burial—Wiching’s intrigues in Rome, falsification of Stephen V’s letter—Expulsion of Methodius’ prominent disciples


7. The Cyrilo-Methodian heritage in Poland and Bohemia

    Moravian hierarchy reestablished, end of Great Moravia— Gorazd and Slavonic bishops in Poland?—Slavonic liturgy and hierarchy in Poland?—The problem of two metropolitan sees in Poland—Wiślica a metropolitan see?—Casimir the Restorer, Boleslas II, disappearance of the Slavonic hierarchy and liturgy in Poland—Archaeological evidence for cultural influence of Great Moravia on Bohemia—Bořivoj and Ludmila; churches at Levý Hradec and Prague—The chronicler Christian on Slavic liturgy —his sources—Privilegium moraviensis ecclesiae: Latin defense of Slavonic liturgy, written in Moravia—Epilogus terrae Moraviae composed in Latin by Moravian refugee priest—First Slavonic compositions in Bohemia—Tolerance of Slavonic liturgy and letters—St. Adalbert and Slavonic liturgy—Foundation of Slavonic Abbey Sázava by St. Procopius—Cult of Cyril and Methodius in Bohemia?—Translation of Latin Legends into Slavonic; Czech Benedictins and Slavonic letters—Invocation of Western Saints in Slavonic translations of Latin prayers—Relation between Kiev and Bohemia through Sázava—King Vratislav II, Gregory VII and Slavonic liturgy—End of Slavonic center in Sázava, disappearance of the Slavonic liturgy, memory of the Slavonic past under Přemysl II and Charles IV


8. Byzantium, Rome, and the Cyrilo-Methodian heritage in Croatia, Bulgaria, and Serbia

    Slavonic liturgy in Croatia; Methodius in Dalmatia?—Byzantine intervention in Croatia—Existence of the Slavonic liturgy in Dalmatia at an early date—Its tolerance during the tenth century—Spalato against Nin; the synods of Spalato (925) did not for bid Slavonic liturgy—The Roman reformist movement and the Slavonic liturgy; the synod of 1060—Revolt of the Slavonic clergy against the synodal decree of 1060—Tolerance of the Slavonic liturgy in spite of its prohibition—St. Jerome “promoted” as the inventor of glagolitic letters and liturgy; approval of his invention by Rome in 1247—Arrival of Methodius’ disciples in Bulgaria— Boris creates a Slavonic center in Macedonia; Clement’s activity— Clement established bishop by Symeon; Slavonic schools of Ochrida and Preslav—Byzantine attitude to the Slavonic liturgy and. letters; formation of the Cyrillic alphabet; Chrabrs defense of the glagolitic alphabet—Slavonic school in Constantinople and Bulgaria—The priest Constantine; literary activity of the Preslav school under Symeon's inspiration—Latin and Greek missions among the Serbians—First Serbian bishopric of Rasa founded by Symeon—Dyrrhachiums and Ochrida’s rivalry over Serbia—Latin influence in the first Serbian state of Dioclea—Stephen Nemanja becomes orthodox and master of Rascia and Dioclea; Rome, mistaken policy—Stephen I obtains the royal crown from Innocent III; Sava consecrated by the Patriarch of Nicaea as first Archbishop of Serbia; Rome’s failure to win over the Serbians


9. Byzantium and the Cyrilo-Methodian heritage in Kievan Russia

    Eastern Slavic tribes among the last to be Christianized; Armenian and Georgian claim to apostolic origin of their Churches—St. Andrew and Scythia—Future Russia—Slavic tribes approaching the Crimea; the Byzantines and the Slavs on the Dnieper; influence of the Khazars on the Slavs—Christianity among the Slavs around Don river?; Byzantine mission in Kuban—First contact of Byzantium with the Rhos—Attack on Constantinople; first Christianization of Kiev; its ruin and survival—Baptism of Olga; her message to Otto the Great—Vladimir's conversion; introduction of Slavonic liturgy—Main features of Kievan literary school— Characteristic traits of Kievan Christianity—St. Vladimir a new Constantine, isoapostolos—Byzantine impact on Russian art— Russian and Byzantine jurisprudence—Byzantine political ideas and Russia; Moscow a Third Rome



    1. The embassies of Constantine-Cyril and Photius to the Arabs

    2. The survival of Roman provincial culture in Pannonia and Noricum reaching Moravia

    3. By which route did the Byzantine embassy reach Moravia?


    Notes  —  Bibliography  —  Index


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