Origins of Intelligence Services

Francis Dvornik



To the memory of General William J. Donovan

and to all those who worked with him,

or under his direction, throughout

World War II to the final victory

of the Allies in 1945.





I found most of the literary documents needed for this study in the Dumbarton Oaks Library. I am deeply obliged to the Honorable William R. Tyler, Director of Dumbarton Oaks, for his interest in my research and his encouragement to publish it. The staff of the Library of Congress was very helpful in procuring for me the books on Arabic, Mongol, and Chinese history not in the Dumbarton Oaks Library. My friend, Professor Peter Charanis of Rutgers University, read part of the manuscript and recommended it to Rutgers University Press for publication. My friend Godfrey Scheele read and prepared a part of the manuscript. Mrs. Joan Southcote-Aston, secretary and research assistant at Dumbarton Oaks, read the whole manuscript, and I am grateful to her for her help in both correcting and styling the final version. She also checked my references, made the final typescript, and assisted me in the proofreading.


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