The Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism, vol. 82



The Ecumenical Councils


By Francis Dvornik



Hawthorn Books Publishers

New York 1961



Scans in .pdf format (3.8 Mb)




I. The First Ecumenical Councils

1. Origin of the Councils

2. The Council of Nicaea (325): the Role of the Emperor and the Rights of Bishops

3. The Aftermath of Nicaea and the Second Ecumenical Council

4. Rivalry between Alexandria, Constantinople and Antioch: the Third Ecumenical Council (431)

5. The Triumphs of Monophysitism at the “Robber Synod” (449)

6. The Council of Chalcedon (451)

7. Attempts at Compromise with the Monophysites

8. Emperor Justinian and the Fifth Ecumenical Council (553)

9. The Sixth Ecumenical Council (680)

10. Image Worship and the Seventh Ecumenical Council (787)

11. The Photian Controversy and the Synods of 869 and 879


II. The Medieval Councils of the Western Church

1. The Reformers and Roman Synods

2. The Four Councils of the Lateran (1123, 1139, 1179, 1215) and the First Council of Lyons (1245)

3. The Abortive Union at the Second Council of Lyons

4. The General Council of Vienne and the Suppression of the Templars (1311, 1312)


III. The Shadow of the Conciliar Theory

1. Western Schism, Origins of the Conciliar Theory

2. The Council of Constance (1414-18)

3. The Councils of Basle-Ferrara-Florence (14317), Union and Its Failure

4. Survivals of the Conciliar Theory, the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-17)


IV. The Councils of Trent and of the Vatican

1. Beginning of the Reformation

2. The Council of Trent (1545-65)

3. From Trent to the Vatican Council

4. The Vatican Council (1869, 1870)

5. The Vatican Council/Definition and Orthodox Belief in Church Infallibility


    Select Bibliography


[Back to Main Page]